Diesel engine, any internal-combustion engine in which air is compressed to a sufficiently high temperature to ignite diesel fuel injected into the cylinder, where combustion and expansion actuate a piston. It converts the chemical energy stored in the fuel into mechanical energy, which can be used to power freight trucks, large tractors, locomotives, and marine vessels. A limited number of automobiles also are diesel-powered, as are some electric-power generator sets.Visit here; Diesel truck parts.
The diesel engine is an intermittent-combustion piston-cylinder device. It operates on either a two-stroke or four-stroke cycle (see figure); however, unlike the spark-ignition gasoline engine, the diesel engine induces only air into the combustion chamber on its intake stroke.
Diesel engines are typically constructed with compression ratios in the range 14:1 to 22:1. Both two-stroke and four-stroke engine designs can be found among engines with bores (cylinder diameters) less than 600 mm (24 inches). Engines with bores of greater than 600 mm are almost exclusively two-stroke cycle systems.
The diesel engine gains its energy by burning fuel injected or sprayed into the compressed, hot air charge within the cylinder. The air must be heated to a temperature greater than the temperature at which the injected fuel can ignite. Fuel sprayed into air that has a temperature higher than the “auto-ignition” temperature of the fuel spontaneously reacts with the oxygen in the air and burns.
Air temperatures are typically in excess of 526 °C (979 °F); however, at engine start-up, supplemental heating of the cylinders is sometimes employed, since the temperature of the air within the cylinders is determined by both the engine’s compression ratio and its current operating temperature. Diesel engines are sometimes called compression-ignition engines because initiation of combustion relies on air heated by compression rather than on an electric spark.
In a diesel engine, fuel is introduced as the piston approaches the top dead centre of its stroke. The fuel is introduced under high pressure either into a precombustion chamber or directly into the piston-cylinder combustion chamber. With the exception of small, high-speed systems, diesel engines use direct injection.
Diesel engine fuel-injection systems are typically designed to provide injection pressures in the range of 7 to 70 megapascals (1,000 to 10,000 pounds per square inch). There are, however, a few higher-pressure systems.
Precise control of fuel injection is critical to the performance of a diesel engine. Since the entire combustion process is controlled by fuel injection, injection must begin at the correct piston position (i.e., crank angle). At first the fuel is burned in a nearly constant-volume process while the piston is near top dead centre. As the piston moves away from this position, fuel injection is continued, and the combustion process then appears as a nearly constant-pressure process.
The combustion process in a diesel engine is heterogeneous—that is, the fuel and air are not premixed prior to initiation of combustion. Consequently, rapid vaporization and mixing of fuel in air is very important to thorough burning of the injected fuel. This places much emphasis on injector nozzle design, especially in direct-injection engines.
Engine work is obtained during the power stroke. The power stroke includes both the constant-pressure process during combustion and the expansion of the hot products of combustion after fuel injection ceases.