Important Concepts in Biology for Students


Biology is the study of living things. It is an essential course for students to take because it covers everything from cells to ecosystems. Students need to know how life works in order to understand the world around them. While there are a multitude of careers in biology, this science also provides opportunities for students to study other fields such as math, chemistry, and physics. In this article, we shall explore a few basic concepts of biology which are integral for students, irrespective of their field of study.


A cell is a fundamental unit of life. It’s the basic structural and functional unit of all living things, from single-celled organisms to multicellular organisms. It is a self-sustaining, metabolically active structure that has a membrane-bound nucleus and cytoplasm. Cells are the building blocks of every organism and they perform specific functions in support of the organism’s needs. Cells also contain certain structures called organelles which perform specific functions that are integral to the cell’s survival. Some of the important organelles are: Nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and endoplasmic reticulum.


Photosynthesis is a process that converts light energy into chemical energy with the help of chlorophyll and other pigments. It is the first and most important step in the plant life cycle since it enables plants to live and grow. Photosynthesis is also a crucial process in the Earth’s ecosystem. It helps to regulate CO2 levels and create more biodiversity. Photosynthesis also plays a role in providing food for the animal kingdom, both directly through plant growth and indirectly through its conversion to sugars that can be used by animals as their food source.

Nervous System

The human nervous system is classified into the Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, and the Autonomic Nervous System. The Central Nervous System includes the brain and spinal cord, where information is processed at a speed of 100 million times per second. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that branch out throughout the body. The Autonomic Nervous System consists of nerves that control involuntary functions. It is divided into two systems, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The fundamental unit of the nervous system is the neutron and the neuron function primarily involves conducting electrical signals which provide communication between the sensory receptors, glands, muscles, spinal cord and the brain.


Evolution is a theory which implies that all species on Earth have evolved from a common ancestor or a group of common ancestors. Moreover, it is also defined as the change in heritable characteristics of populations over time. Organisms, populations, and genes are all subject to natural selection. This means that individuals with certain favourable traits or variations are more likely to survive and reproduce than those without, resulting in observable changes over time. From an analytical perspective, evolution is important because it explains the diversity of life on Earth, how organisms adapt to their environment and why some survive while others do not. Explore other important topics from complex tissue and brain anatomy to plant and animal cells only on BYJU’S. Alternatively, subscribe to BYJU’S YouTube channel to discover other interesting topics.

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